Very shallow M6.6 earthquake hits Ogasawara region, Japan
A very shallow earthquake registered by the JMA as M6.6 hit Japanese Ogasawara Archipelago at 18:22 UTC (03:22 JST) on August 16, 2018. The USGS is reporting M6.4 at a depth of 11.5 km (7.1 miles) at 18:21 and M6.0 at 18:22 UTC. EMSC is reporting M6.4 and M5.9 at a depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). According to the USGS, the epicenter was located 251 km (156 miles) SE of Iwo Jima, 420.9 km (261.5 miles) SSW of Ogasawara, Japan and 945.4 km (587.5 miles) NNW of Saipan, Northen Mariana Islands. There are no people living within 100 km (62 miles). Although there may be slight sea-level changes in coastal regions, this earthquake has caused no damage to Japan, JMA said. The closest volcanoes are Minami-Hiyoshi and Nikko, both submarine. They have located roughly 100 km (62 miles) W of the epicenter. Periodic water discoloration and water-spouting have been reported over Minami-Hiyoshi since 1975 when detonations and an explosion were als…

Fernandina volcano erupts, lava flow reaching the ocean, Galapagos

Fernandina volcano erupts, lava flow reaching the ocean, Galapagos

A new eruption started at Fernandina volcano (Cerro la Cumbre) in Ecuador around 15:00 UTC on June 16, 2018, IGEPN reports. This large shield volcano is a part of Galapagos volcanic archipelago.Its last eruption occurred in September 2017.
The eruption is taking place on the north-northeast flank of the volcano and is so far characterized by the emission of lava flows and a gas column rising up to 3 km (1.8 miles) and drifting southwest.
According to the personnel of the Galapagos National Park, the lava flow has already reached the ocean.
The eruption of Fernandina volcano on June 16, 2018. Credit: Sabina Estupiñan, Marcelo Izquierdo and Daniel Muñoz
There are no human settlements in the area of the eruption and until IGEPN's latest report on June 16, there was no evidence of ash emission.
The agency is advising residents and tourists to stay away from the area in eruption and in particular from the area where lava flows are entering the ocean due to possible explosions and a large amount of toxic gas.
The eruption was preceded by a swarm of earthquakes, with the first one at 12:37 UTC on June 16.

Geological summary

Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km (3.1 to 4 miles) summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes.
Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in the growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time.
In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m (1 148 feet) following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent.
The collapse of a nearly 1 km3 (0.24 mi3) section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVP)
Featured image: The eruption of Fernandina volcano on June 16, 2018. Credit: Sabina Estupiñan, Marcelo Izquierdo  and  Daniel Muñoz

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